September 21

Animals Large And Small Once Covered North

Animals Large And Small Once Covered North

The North American prairies can appear deceptively barren in winter. Many wild animals have survived harsh winters on these grasslands. They forage in the snow, shelter from the cold and bite their winds in their dens. The amber grains of the prairies of the United States are still visible today. This is what Katharine Lee Bates wrote in America the Beautiful, an 1895 book. Scientists are surprisingly unaware of today’s grasslands biodiversity, especially about the status and habits of big small mammals such as badgers.

The heartland has seen a lack of land conservation. Most estimates suggest that less than 4% of the tallgrass Prairie ecosystem, which once cover 170 million acres in North America, is still left. The population of endemic species such as prairie dogs is also affected when native grasslands are destroyed.

We have combined more than 60 years experience in using hypothesis-driven, field-based science to conserve wildlife in grasslands systems across North America and around the world. We have protected species from bison and pronghorn in North America, to wild yak and saiga in Central Asia. Scientists can help farmers, ranchers, and communities make better decisions about how to manage their lands and the species they depend on.

Two Brutal Centuries Of North Settlement

North America’s prairies extend from Mexico to Canada and westward from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. There are also grasslands in the Pacific coast ranges and Rockies.

This territory was home to many wildlife and Native Americans when Thomas Jefferson approved the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803. Millions of prairie dogs, pronghorn and bison, as well as thousands of bighorn sheep, were able to live in these vast, uninterrupted horizons of contiguous grasslands. There were many birds, including greater prairie chickens, grouse, and more than 3 million passenger pigeons.

Lewis and Clark kept meticulous records of all the animals and plants they encountered during their three-year journey. They wrote about grizzly bears, wolves, burrowing owls and black-footed ferrets, prairie chickens, and sagegrouses. These and John James Audubon’s Birds of America published between 1827-1838 confirm the fact that North America was alive before European settlement.

Over the next 100 years, this changed when European immigrants arrived west. Although market hunting was one reason, settlers also fertilized, fertilized, and fenced the land and drained aquifers.

Fate Of Prairie North Dogs

The prairies were altered by humans, and bison lost 99% of their original range. The sad fate of prairie dogs, black-footed ferrets and wolves, as well as grizzly bears, was the same. Conservationists started fighting for the preservation and restoration of what was left in the middle 20th century. It’s not surprising that conservationists and wildlife agencies focused on big, well-known and economically important targets: Deer for dinner, birds for hunting, and fisheries to feed and sport.

Some of these efforts were successful. Every species Lewis and Clark saw in Montana have been preserved. After several restoration efforts in areas such as the Wichita Mountains in Oklahoma and Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, in the Flint Hills in Kansas, Congress declared bison the U.S. National Mammal. The number of pronghorn antelope, also known as speed goats by Lewis and Clark, has increased from less than 20,000 in the 20th century to 700,000. They can be found across grasslands, from northern Mexico and Texas to North Dakota and Montana to southern Canada.

However, elk are still rare in grassy savannas. Prairie dogs and wild bison also remain scarce. The North American grassland birds, larks, pipits, curlews or mountain plovers, are all in serious decline or near collapse. Introduced non-native exotic fish, decreased water flows in prairie streams and rivers due to agriculture, as well as declines in water quality, quantity, and native fish species have all decimated aquatic invertebrates such freshwater mussels in grassland ecosystems’ waterways.

Where North Animals Still Roam

Other regions have intact grasslands that are functionally eco-systems, which is a contrast to North America. White-tailed gazelles (and khulan, an Asiatic wild ass), still travel hundreds of miles across Mongolia’s vast unfenced steppes. The sub-Saharan white-eared kob is a sub-Saharan antivelope that travels hundreds of miles each year through a North Dakota-sized area of southern Sudan. It’s one of Africa’s longest land migrations.

Chiru (antlope) and Kiang (large wild asses), continue their historic movements across the vast Tibetan plateau. Two national parks have been establish by war-torn Afghanistan to allow snow leopards, wild wolves, and ibex to continue their freedom of movement.

This kind of biodiversity could be restore in some parts of North American prairies. There are areas in the Flint Hills of Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska’s Sandhills, and Montana’s Rocky Mountain Front that have not been plow. These areas range from 1 million to 4,000,000 acres. These areas are being protect by both public agencies and non-profit conservation groups.

Knowledge Gaps Impede Conservation

Because of the destruction of grasslands in America, conservation has been slow. Scientists don’t have accurate estimates of the current abundance and population trends for many vertebrate species, regardless of whether they’re mammal, bird, or fish, despite powerful analytical tools and technological innovation.

The first step in protecting the environment is to measure remnant diversity. We do this by asking simple questions to the families that have lived on these lands for many generations. One Montana rancher said that the last time he saw a porcupine was well. It wasn’t his memory, but they used be there. In Wyoming, another rancher said that it had been nearly two decades since he last saw white-tailed Jackrabbits. This was a species that used to be common in the area.

The responses vary from Colorado to New Mexico, the Dakotas to Utah and Colorado to New Mexico. There are many questions about the status of species such as foxes and porcupines. White-tailed Jack rabbits, badgers, badgers, marmots, and beavers in the region. The trends across the continent remain a mystery.

National Parks Inventory

Good news is that some species can be analysis more thoroughly in national parks inventory and monitoring programs. Citizen scientists help by reporting the occurrences species like black-tailed Jackrabbits. Scientists will be able to see patterns in species retention and loss as they dig deeper into the databases.

Our research on white-tailed Jack rabbits, for example, revealed that they were present. In Yellowstone National Park’s northern range decades ago. They were extinct in the Tetons by 2000 and had escaped to a very small part of Yellowstone.

The U.S. has a long history of protecting its deserts and majestic mountains. We believe it has underestimated the biologically rich grasslands. Wildlife of all sizes, large and small, could thrive again on America’s fertile plains if there was more conservation.

September 21

Tattoos Have A Long History Ancient World

Tattoos Have A Long History Ancient World

Although most people tattoos would prefer to forget about the pandemic as soon possible, some have chosen to keep a permanent reminder in the form of a tattoo. These tattoos can be use to remind you of the past year. They depict messages about social distancing, toilet paper shortages and other pandemic-related themes. People who have lost loved ones due to the disease use tattoos to make memorials. Tattoos are not a new phenomenon. They have been use for centuries to express emotions.

I enjoy talking to people about tattoo origins as a tattoo historian. There are many countries mention, such as Japan, China, Japan, South America, or Polynesia. It is fascinating that no one has ever answered the question that tattoos could have originated from North America or Europe in the five years that we have been having these conversations. These answers, along with what they leave out, reveal a deeper truth about tattoo history. The history of tattoos has been heavily influence and shape by racism, oppression and colonialism.

Histories Of Tattoos

Tattooing was a common practice in many parts the ancient world. In ancient Japan as well as Egypt, tattoos were common. For centuries, the Maori of New Zealand have used sacred Ta Moko tattooing to show who they are as individuals and their community.

But, there is no single culture that can claim to have invent the art form. Since antiquity, tattooing was a common practice in Europe and North America. The Greeks depicted their tattooed Thracian neighbours, the Indo-European-speaking people, on their pottery. Roman historians documented complex tattoos on the Picts, an indigenous group living in what is now northern Scotland.

Otzi, the Iceman the oldest known source of tattoos. This 5,300-year-old mummy corps found in the mountains in Italy in 1991. Researchers discovered 2,000-year-old tattoo tools from the Pueblo archaeological site in south eastern Utah. They still retain tattoo ink remnants on the cactus spines that bound with yucca leaf leaves.

Colonization And Tattoos

Steve Gilbert, a tattoo historian, explains that tattoo is actually a mixture of Marquesan-Samoan words (tatau and tutu) to describe these practices. As they shared stories about their adventures, the sailors who explored the Polynesian islands combined these words.

It begs the question, if tattoos have existed in Europe and North America for ages, then why did Western cultures adopt and combine these words instead of using words that existed in their own right? My research reveal that tattoos were use in the 1400s to mark a boundary between colonized Europeans and colonized Africans.

Although tattooing was still practice in Europe, North America and elsewhere, many of these tattooing techniques were push underground when European colonization began. This was partly due to attempts to Christianize parts of Europe through purging towns and villages from pagan and other nonconformist, religious practices including tattooing. Beginning in A.D. 391 and continuing through assimilation campaigns and missionaries, tattoos became un-Christian as Catholic churches expanded their influence.

We Are Not Like That

In the 1400s and 1550s, Western colonizers began to push into Africa, the Pacific Islands, and North and South America. They found whole tribes of tattoo-loving natives. These tattoo people were often cite as evidence that untamed natives require the assistance of good, God-fearing Europeans to become fully human. These tattoo people even taken back to Europe and parade around for profit.

Two such victims were a tattooed Indigenous mother with her son and kidnapped in the late 1600s by explorers from an unknown Canadian location. The advertisement handbill at the time stated. Let’s thank Almighty God that he has declared his self to us through his Word, so we are not like those savages or man-eaters.

These enslaved humans would be paid to look at, making their captors a healthy income and reinforcing the need for European expansion. The destruction of the cultures from which they were taken had a direct impact on their tattoos. Leaders and holy people are often the most tattooed. It is important to note that most captives died within a few months of arriving in Europe. They were often afflicted by foreign disease or malnourishment, and their slavers didn’t feed them.

Tattoos, Savage

The tattooed, savage narrative was further pushed when tattooed people began to show themselves at circus and carnival freak shows. They not only promoted the idea that tattoos were savage and othering through their performances as freaks, but they also created tragic backstories. They claimed that they were forcibly tattooed and attacked by marginalized groups, including Native Americans, who the public considered savages.

American Nora Hildebrandt was one such performer. Nora told the story of her capture by Native Americans, who tattooed it on her. It was more tragic than the fact that Martin Hildebrandt, her long time partner, was her tattoo artist. Nora Hildebrandt was especially confuse by her story, since her tattoos featured patriotic symbols like the American flag.

The voices of colonizers continue to echo in the present. Western societies have a lot of stigma attached to tattoos. Tattoos can be view as a poor choice or trashy in Western societies. Recent studies have shown that the stigma persists. Tattoos are art, and they can use to communicate identity. Answering the question, Where did tattoos originate? I would say that they came from everyone, no matter what the early colonizers might have believed.

September 21

Arctic Warming Can Trigger Extreme Cold Waves

Arctic Warming Can Trigger Extreme Cold Waves

A very severe cold wave struck large arctic areas of North America in February 2021. It occurred amid rapidly rising global temperatures. 10 million people were without power. Texas was the worst affect, with more than 125 people dying. It was the coldest February in the United States in over 30 years. This cold wave the most expensive winter storm ever record in the United States.

The freezing temperatures were cause by a dip in the jet stream. This is a band of strong winds that hovers eight miles above Earth’s surface. And serves as the boundary between warmer and colder air. Although the jet stream flows west to east, they are not the only directions in which atmospheric waves can move. They can also move up or down over large distances. This can be use to link weather and climate conditions in one region. The Arctic with other regions, such as Texas.

You can see ripples when you place a rock into a pond. Although ripples in a pond may be a different kind of wave from dips in a jet stream. Both can transmit the disturbance’s effects to distant areas. The atmospheric waves carried the Arctic’s climate change influence to other parts of North America, Asia and North America. We present how this happen in a Science study that was publish Sept. 2, 2021. And how global warming can make events such as the February cold waves more likely.

The Arctic Is Not A Place That Stays The Same

The Arctic is heating faster than any other region and at twice the global average rate. This is causing major changes in the climate of the region. Including melting sea ice and, in late fall, an increase in snow cover over Siberia.

The reflective properties of snow and ice provide an insulating layer. They also alter the amount and velocity of energy and water between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Because the atmosphere is sensitive to changes of energy and moisture, substantial changes can provide a kick. Which causes upward-moving waves to rippling from the area.

These waves travel upwards into the stratosphere to disrupt the stratospheric Polar Vortex, another band that moves closer around the pole at the middle of the stratosphere, about 18 miles above. The vortex responds by weakening and stretching.

The waves can alter the stratospheric Vortex. However, the vortex can also affect how waves move. Because waves are affect by wind and temperature fields, the vortex is responsible for determining those winds and temperatures. A vortex stretching event is different from larger vortex disruptions because upward-moving waves reflect back to the surface and can have an impact on weather patterns at lower altitudes.

These downward-moving waves gather at lower altitudes in North America and cause a dip in the jet stream to the south, which brings colder air south. The Arctic can be link to other regions by the upward and down movement of atmospheric waves, which travel long distances in the same way as ripples across a pond.

Test Cause And Effect Arctic

Two different approaches use to identify and examine these relationships. We first used machine learning. This is a technique where a computer learns to group similar events using historical data. Then, we analysis the events of the stretched vortex to find a pattern. First, surface temperature changes in Arctic followed by changes in the stratospheric Polar Vortex. Finally, cold waves in North America, Asia, and vertically moving waves provided the connections over the period of a few months. The Arctic’s surface temperature changes are similar to those that are associate with melting sea ice, increasing Siberian snow covers and Arctic climate change.

The computer model was use to assess cause and effect, and to test the response of the atmosphere to Arctic changes. The model accurately reproduced the sequence of events observed. Two independent lines of evidence support a pathway of influence. From Arctic climate changes at the surface, to changes in the stratospheric winds and back down to cold waves and Arctic climate change in North America and other parts of Asia.

These Results Have Implications

Our research confirms two important lessons about climate change. First, it doesn’t need to happen in your backyard for it to have an impact on you. Unexpected consequences can have very serious consequences poker pelangi.

Large changes in the Arctic may not only be a concern for one region, but can have wide-reaching impacts on North America and other parts of Asia. These impacts can be quite different from what people expect. These results show that there are two things to do: reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly and develop better strategies to manage extreme weather events (hot and cold).